twin Übersetzung, Englisch - Deutsch Wörterbuch, Siehe auch 'twin beds',twin bill ',twin brother',twin carburettors'. Übersetzung für 'twin' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzungen für twin im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online: twin, identical/fraternal twins, twin daughter/son. Because convection transfers a significant fraction of the piquet fussball energy flux from subphotospheric layers to the surface in WD stars with surface temperatures below approximately 12, K, its suppression by strong magnetic fields will result in decrease of the stellar luminosity. Britisches Super slots Amerikanisches Englisch twin bed. Adjektiv und Adverb III. Daher liefert die magnetische Unterdrückung der Abkühlung eine natürliche Erklärung für die erhöhte Anzahl von MWZ bei kühleren Temperaturen, wo Konvektion der dominierende Energietransportmechanismus ist. The founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus is one of the many instances that kostenlos spielen book of ra ohne anmeldung to mind. Die beiden Studien gelbe karten em 2019 den Jahren und vergleichen jeweils übergewichtige mit normalgewichtigen Personen und ihre Wetttipps. Therefore, magnetic suppression of cooling provides a natural explanation for the increase in number of MWD stars at cool temperatures where convection is the dominant energy transport mechanism. Aber es war wie Puffs böser Zwilling. The Black Brother and the Lonely Twin. I guess we all have a twin. Die beiden Studien aus den Jahren und vergleichen jeweils übergewichtige mit normalgewichtigen Personen und ihre Genausstattung.
The digital twin may lead to inequality, as the technology might not be accessible for everyone by widening the gap between the rich and poor.
Furthermore, the digital twin will identify patterns in a population which may lead to discrimination. Looking more specifically on a firm-level, several incumbent firms are investing and developing healthcare solution with the digital twin.
Firstly, Philips came up with the idea of a digital version of yourself. Digital twins offer so much opportunities to track the status of physical systems and devices, so why not manage your own health by tracking the status and create the ability to act preventive instead of reactive.
By making use of artificial intelligence, doctors can make more precise diagnoses. The costs of developing a digital twin are seen as a considerable investment.
By this, nowadays only incumbent firms have the resources to develop this. However, by making use of a cloud-based platform and a modular organization, it may also be possible for smaller organizations to contribute to a certain module.
This treatment allows prediction of deployment of medical devices. Another industry that has been disrupted by digital twin technology is the automobile industry.
Digital twins in the automobile industry are implemented by using existing data in order to facilitate processes and reduce marginal costs.
Currently, automobile designers expand the existing physical materiality by incorporating software-based digital abilities. In doing so, they can suggest incorporating new features in the car that can reduce car accidents on the road, which was previously not possible in such a short time frame .
One of the incumbent automobile firms that is incorporating digital twin technology in their business processes is Volkswagen. The digital twins support the production process and development of the cars, by providing all employees worldwide with detailed and real-time data of the model.
Leingang, one of the leaders of the Virtual Prototype team, describes how the implementation of digital twins helps Volkswagen to optimize their product lifecycle management.
Here they make use of the Microsoft Hololens, which enables engineers and designers to view and modify digital twins, assisted by other technologies such as gesture control and voice commands.
Unlike incumbents in the automobile industry that have been wrapping digital technologies around their traditional products in the last couple of years, relatively new player Tesla has been involved with digitally innovating the industry from the moment the firm entered the market.
According to Tuertscher , digital technologies have certain characteristics that distinguish them from other technologies.
These characteristics, in turn, have certain consequences. Digital twins possess some of these characteristics, namely connectivity, homogenization, they are reprogrammable and smart, modular, and they leave digital traces.
One of the main characteristics of the digital twin technology is its connectivity. The development of IoT also brings forward the development of digital twin technology.
This technology shows many characteristics that have similarities with the characteristic of the IoT, namely its connective nature.
First and foremost, the technology enables connectivity between the physical component and its digital counterpart.
The basis of digital twins is based on this connection, without it, digital twin technology would not exist. Like described in the previous section, this connectivity is created by sensors on the physical product which obtain data and integrate and communicate this data through various integration technologies.
Besides this obvious connection, digital twin technology enables increased connectivity between organizations, products, and customers. These partners can then check the status of this product by simply checking the digital twin.
Also, connectivity with customers can be increased, for example, an organization which manufactures engines for its customers can check the digital twin of its engines to see if it still working properly and offer maintenance to its customers if needed.
This last example is an example of a consequence of the connectivity of the technology, which is called servitization. Servitization is the process of organizations that are adding value to their core corporate offerings through services.
Digital twins can be further characterized as a digital technology that is both the consequence and an enabler of the homogenization of data.
Due to the fact that any type of information or content can now be stored and transmitted in the same digital form, it can be used to create a virtual representation of the product in the form of a digital twin , thus decoupling the information from its physical form.
However, digital twins also enable increasingly more information on physical products to be stored digitally and become decoupled from the product itself.
As data is increasingly digitized, it can be transmitted, stored and computed in fast and low-cost ways. This would, therefore, lead to lower marginal costs of developing digital twins and make it comparatively much cheaper to test, predict, and solve problems on virtual representations rather than testing on physical models and waiting for physical products to break before intervening.
Another consequence of the homogenization and decoupling of information is that the user experience converges. As information from physical objects is digitized, a single artifact can have multiple new affordances.
Michael Grieves  notes the following about the consequences of homogenization enabled by digital twins:. With the digital twin, not only the factory manager, but everyone associated with factory production could have that same virtual window to not only a single factory, but to all the factories across the globe.
Another important characteristic of the digital twin technology is its reprogrammable nature. As stated earlier, a digital twin makes it possible to make remote adjustments through the digital component of a twin.
It enables a physical product to be reprogrammable in a certain way. Furthermore, the digital twin is also reprogrammable in an automatic manner.
Through the sensors on the physical product, artificial intelligence technologies, and predictive analytics, digital twins can adjust themselves automatically in order let the physical product be up to date and work as good as possible.
If we take the example of an engine again, digital twins can be used to collect data about the performance of the engine and if needed adjust the engine, creating a newer version of the product.
Also, servitization can be seen as a consequence of the reprogrammable nature as well. Manufactures can be responsible for observing the digital twin, making adjustments, or reprogramming the digital twin when needed and they can offer this as an extra service.
Another characteristic that can be observed, is the fact that digital twin technologies leave digital traces. Monozygotic MZ or identical twins occur when a single egg is fertilized to form one zygote hence, "monozygotic" which then divides into two separate embryos.
Eventually, two separate fetuses develop. Monozygotic twins may also be created artificially by embryo splitting.
It can be used as an expansion of in vitro fertilization IVF to increase the number of available embryos for embryo transfer.
Monozygotic twinning occurs in birthing at a rate of about 3 in every deliveries worldwide. The likelihood of a single fertilization resulting in monozygotic twins is uniformly distributed in all populations around the world.
IVF techniques are more likely to create dizygotic twins. For IVF deliveries, there are nearly 21 pairs of twins for every 1, Monozygotic twins are genetically nearly identical and they are always the same sex unless there has been a mutation during development.
The children of monozygotic twins test genetically as half-siblings or full siblings, if a pair of monozygotic twins reproduces with another pair or with the same person , rather than first cousins.
Identical twins do not have the same fingerprints however, because even within the confines of the womb, the fetuses touch different parts of their environment, giving rise to small variations in their corresponding prints and thus making them unique.
Monozygotic twins always have the same phenotype. Normally due to an environmental factor or the deactivation of different X chromosomes in female monozygotic twins, and in some extremely rare cases, due to aneuploidy , twins may express different sexual phenotypes , normally from an XXY Klinefelter syndrome zygote splitting unevenly.
Monozygotic twins, although genetically very similar, are not genetically exactly the same. The DNA in white blood cells of 66 pairs of monozygotic twins was analyzed for , single-nucleotide polymorphisms known to occur in human populations.
Polymorphisms appeared in 2 of the 33 million comparisons, leading the researchers to extrapolate that the blood cells of monozygotic twins may have on the order of one DNA-sequence difference for every 1.
If they occur early in fetal development, they will be present in a very large proportion of body cells. Another cause of difference between monozygotic twins is epigenetic modification , caused by differing environmental influences throughout their lives.
Epigenetics refers to the level of activity of any particular gene. A gene may become switched on, switched off, or could become partially switched on or off in an individual.
This epigenetic modification is triggered by environmental events. Monozygotic twins can have markedly different epigenetic profiles.
A study of 80 pairs of monozygotic twins ranging in age from three to 74 showed that the youngest twins have relatively few epigenetic differences.
The number of epigenetic differences increases with age. Fifty-year-old twins had over three times the epigenetic difference of three-year-old twins.
Twins who had spent their lives apart such as those adopted by two different sets of parents at birth had the greatest difference.
A study of a deceased triploid XXX twin fetus without a heart showed that although its fetal development suggested that it was an identical twin, as it shared a placenta with its healthy twin, tests revealed that it was probably a polar body twin.
The authors were unable to predict whether a healthy fetus could result from a polar body twinning. In , a study argued that many cases of triploidity arise from semi-identical twinning.
In , a study reported a case of a pair of living twins, one intersex and one a phenotypical male. The exact mechanism of fertilization could not be determined but the study stated that it was unlikely to be a case of polar body twinning.
The degree of separation of the twins in utero depends on if and when they split into two zygotes. Dizygotic twins were always two zygotes.
Monozygotic twins split into two zygotes at some time very early in the pregnancy. The timing of this separation determines the chorionicity the number of placentae and amniocity the number of sacs of the pregnancy.
Dichorionic twins either never divided i. Monoamnionic twins divide after the first week. In very rare cases, twins become conjoined twins.
Non-conjoined monozygotic twins form up to day 14 of embryonic development, but when twinning occurs after 14 days, the twins will likely be conjoined.
It is a common misconception that two placentas means twins are dizygotic. But if monozygotic twins separate early enough, the arrangement of sacs and placentas in utero is indistinguishable from dizygotic twins.
DiDi twins have the lowest mortality risk at about 9 percent, although that is still significantly higher than that of singletons.
Monochorionic twins share the same placenta , and thus have a risk of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Monoamniotic twins are always monozygotic.
Monoamniotic twins, as with diamniotic monochorionic twins, have a risk of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Also, the two umbilical cords have an increased chance of being tangled around the babies.
Because of this, there is an increased chance that the newborns may be miscarried or suffer from cerebral palsy due to lack of oxygen.
Mortality is highest for conjoined twins due to the many complications resulting from shared organs. Dichorionic-diamniotic twins at 8 weeks and 5 days since co-incubation as part of IVF.
The twin at left in the image is shown in the sagittal plane with the head pointing towards upper left. The twin at right in the image is shown in the coronal plane with the head pointing rightwards.
Abdominal ultrasonography of monoamniotic twins at a gestational age of 15 weeks. There is no sign of any membrane between the fetuses.
A coronal plane is shown of the twin at left, and a sagittal plane of parts of the upper thorax and head is shown of the twin at right.
A study has found that insulin-like growth factor present in dairy products may increase the chance of dizygotic twinning. Specifically, the study found that vegan mothers who exclude dairy from their diets are one-fifth as likely to have twins as vegetarian or omnivore mothers, and concluded that "Genotypes favoring elevated IGF and diets including dairy products, especially in areas where growth hormone is given to cattle, appear to enhance the chances of multiple pregnancies due to ovarian stimulation.
It may also be linked to the increase of growth hormones in food. About 1 in 90 human births 1. The widespread use of fertility drugs causing hyperovulation stimulated release of multiple eggs by the mother has caused what some call an "epidemic of multiple births ".
Nevertheless, the rate of monozygotic twins remains at about 1 in across the globe. In a study on the maternity records of Hausa women living in the Savannah zone of Nigeria , there were 40 twins and 2 triplets per births.
Twenty-six percent of twins were monozygotic. The incidence of multiple births, which was about five times higher than that observed in any western population, was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups, who live in the hot and humid climate of the southern part of the country.
The incidence of multiple births was related to maternal age but did not bear any association to the climate or prevalence of malaria.
Dizygotic twin pregnancies are slightly more likely when the following factors are present in the woman:. Women undergoing certain fertility treatments may have a greater chance of dizygotic multiple births.
The risk of twin birth can vary depending on what types of fertility treatments are used. With in vitro fertilisation IVF , this is primarily due to the insertion of multiple embryos into the uterus.
Ovarian hyperstimulation without IVF has a very high risk of multiple birth. Reversal of anovulation with clomifene trade names including Clomid has a relatively less but yet significant risk of multiple pregnancy.
A year German study  of 8, vaginally delivered twins that is, 4, pregnancies in Hesse yielded a mean delivery time interval of The study stated that the occurrence of complications "was found to be more likely with increasing twin-to-twin delivery time interval" and suggested that the interval be kept short, though it noted that the study did not examine causes of complications and did not control for factors such as the level of experience of the obstetrician, the wish of the women giving birth, or the "management strategies" of the procedure of delivering the second twin.
Researchers suspect that as many as 1 in 8 pregnancies start out as multiples, but only a single fetus is brought to full term, because the other fetus has died very early in the pregnancy and has not been detected or recorded.
There are several reasons for the "vanishing" fetus, including it being embodied or absorbed by the other fetus, placenta or the mother.
This is known as vanishing twin syndrome. Also, in an unknown proportion of cases, two zygotes may fuse soon after fertilization, resulting in a single chimeric embryo, and, later, fetus.
Conjoined twins or the once-commonly used term "siamese" are monozygotic twins whose bodies are joined together during pregnancy. This occurs when the zygote starts to split after day 12  following fertilization and fails to separate completely.
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