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Striking the Pacific Fleet at anchor in Pearl Harbor carried two distinct disadvantages: A further important disadvantage—this of timing, and known to the Japanese—was the absence from Pearl Harbor of all three of the U.
Despite these concerns, Yamamoto decided to press ahead. Japanese confidence in their ability to achieve a short, victorious war also meant other targets in the harbor, especially the navy yard, oil tank farms, and submarine base, were ignored, since—by their thinking—the war would be over before the influence of these facilities would be felt.
The first wave was to be the primary attack, while the second wave was to attack carriers as its first objective and cruisers as its second, with battleships as the third target.
First wave dive bombers were to attack ground targets. Fighters were ordered to strafe and destroy as many parked aircraft as possible to ensure they did not get into the air to intercept the bombers, especially in the first wave.
Fighters were to serve CAP duties where needed, especially over U. Before the attack commenced, two reconnaissance aircraft launched from cruisers Chikuma and Tone were sent to scout over Oahu and Maui and report on U.
Reconnaissance aircraft flights risked alerting the U. A report of the absence of the U. However, Ward sank another midget submarine at A midget submarine on the north side of Ford Island missed the seaplane tender Curtiss with her first torpedo and missed the attacking destroyer Monaghan with her other one before being sunk by Monaghan at A third midget submarine, Ha , grounded twice, once outside the harbor entrance and again on the east side of Oahu, where it was captured on December 8.
The wreck was in the debris field where much surplus U. Both of its torpedoes were missing. This correlates with reports of two torpedoes fired at the light cruiser St.
He originally stipulated that the attack should not commence until thirty minutes after Japan had informed the United States that peace negotiations were at an end.
Tokyo transmitted the word notification commonly called the "Part Message" in two blocks to the Japanese Embassy in Washington.
Transcribing the message took too long for the Japanese ambassador to deliver it on schedule; in the event, it was not presented until more than an hour after the attack began.
While it was viewed by a number of senior U. S government and military officials as a very strong indicator negotiations were likely to be terminated  and that war might break out at any moment,  it neither declared war nor severed diplomatic relations.
For decades, conventional wisdom held that Japan attacked without first formally breaking diplomatic relations only because of accidents and bumbling that delayed the delivery of a document hinting at war to Washington.
In any event, even if the Japanese had decoded and delivered the Part Message before the beginning of the attack, it would not have constituted either a formal break of diplomatic relations or a declaration of war.
The final two paragraphs of the message read:. Thus the earnest hope of the Japanese Government to adjust Japanese-American relations and to preserve and promote the peace of the Pacific through cooperation with the American Government has finally been lost.
The Japanese Government regrets to have to notify hereby the American Government that in view of the attitude of the American Government it cannot but consider that it is impossible to reach an agreement through further negotiations.
The first attack wave of planes was launched north of Oahu, led by Commander Mitsuo Fuchida. As the first wave approached Oahu, it was detected by the U.
This post had been in training mode for months, but was not yet operational. Tyler , a newly assigned officer at the thinly manned Intercept Center, presumed it was the scheduled arrival of six B bombers from California.
The Japanese planes were approaching from a direction very close only a few degrees difference to the bombers,  and while the operators had never seen a formation as large on radar, they neglected to tell Tyler of its size.
As the first wave planes approached Oahu, they encountered and shot down several U. At least one of these radioed a somewhat incoherent warning.
Other warnings from ships off the harbor entrance were still being processed or awaiting confirmation when the attacking planes began bombing and strafing.
Nevertheless, it is not clear any warnings would have had much effect even if they had been interpreted correctly and much more promptly.
The results the Japanese achieved in the Philippines were essentially the same as at Pearl Harbor, though MacArthur had almost nine hours warning that the Japanese had already attacked Pearl Harbor.
The air portion of the attack began at 7: Hawaiian Time  3: A total of  Japanese planes in two waves reached Oahu.
Slow, vulnerable torpedo bombers led the first wave, exploiting the first moments of surprise to attack the most important ships present the battleships , while dive bombers attacked U.
Army Air Forces fighter base. At least two of those bombs broke up on impact, another detonated before penetrating an unarmored deck, and one was a dud.
Thirteen of the forty torpedoes hit battleships, and four torpedoes hit other ships. The famous message, "Air raid Pearl Harbor.
This is not drill. The defenders were very unprepared. The second planned wave consisted of planes: The second wave was divided into three groups.
The separate sections arrived at the attack point almost simultaneously from several directions. Ninety minutes after it began, the attack was over.
Two thousand and eight sailors were killed, and others wounded; soldiers and airmen who were part of the Army until the independent U. Air Force was formed in were killed and wounded; marines were killed and 69 wounded; and 68 civilians were killed and 35 wounded.
In total, 2, American servicemen were killed and 1, were wounded. Already damaged by a torpedo and on fire amidships, Nevada attempted to exit the harbor.
She was deliberately beached to avoid blocking the harbor entrance. California was hit by two bombs and two torpedoes. The crew might have kept her afloat, but were ordered to abandon ship just as they were raising power for the pumps.
Burning oil from Arizona and West Virginia drifted down on her, and probably made the situation look worse than it was. The disarmed target ship Utah was holed twice by torpedoes.
West Virginia was hit by seven torpedoes, the seventh tearing away her rudder. Oklahoma was hit by four torpedoes, the last two above her belt armor , which caused her to capsize.
Maryland was hit by two of the converted 16" shells, but neither caused serious damage. Although the Japanese concentrated on battleships the largest vessels present , they did not ignore other targets.
The light cruiser Helena was torpedoed, and the concussion from the blast capsized the neighboring minelayer Oglala. Two destroyers in dry dock , Cassin and Downes were destroyed when bombs penetrated their fuel bunkers.
The leaking fuel caught fire; flooding the dry dock in an effort to fight fire made the burning oil rise, and both were burned out.
Cassin slipped from her keel blocks and rolled against Downes. The light cruiser Raleigh was holed by a torpedo. The light cruiser Honolulu was damaged, but remained in service.
The repair vessel Vestal , moored alongside Arizona , was heavily damaged and beached. The seaplane tender Curtiss was also damaged. The destroyer Shaw was badly damaged when two bombs penetrated her forward magazine.
Of the American aircraft in Hawaii, were destroyed and damaged, of them on the ground. Eight Army Air Forces pilots managed to get airborne during the attack  and six were credited with downing at least one Japanese aircraft during the attack: Rasmussen , 2nd Lt.
Taylor , 2nd Lt. Welch , 2nd Lt. Brown , and 2nd Lt. Sterling was shot down by Lt. Dains was killed by friendly fire returning from a victory over Kaawa.
The three on patrol returned undamaged. Friendly fire brought down some U. Japanese attacks on barracks killed additional personnel. At the time of the attack, nine civilian aircraft were flying in the vicinity of Pearl Harbor.
Of these, three were shot down. Fifty-five Japanese airmen and nine submariners were killed in the attack, and one was captured. Pacific Fleet far more seriously than the loss of its battleships.
Nimitz , later Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet, "it would have prolonged the war another two years.
Twenty-one ships were damaged or lost in the attack, of which all but three were repaired and returned to service. After a systematic search for survivors, formal salvage operations began.
Pacific Fleet, was immediately ordered to lead salvage operations. Around Pearl Harbor, divers from the Navy shore and tenders , the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard , and civilian contractors Pacific Bridge and others began work on the ships that could be refloated.
They patched holes, cleared debris, and pumped water out of ships. Navy divers worked inside the damaged ships. Within six months, five battleships and two cruisers were patched or refloated so they could be sent to shipyards in Pearl Harbor and on the mainland for extensive repair.
Intensive salvage operations continued for another year, a total of some 20, man-hours under water. Arizona and the target ship Utah were too heavily damaged for salvage, though much of their armament and equipment was removed and put to use aboard other vessels.
Today, the two hulks remain where they were sunk,  with Arizona becoming a war memorial. The day after the attack, Roosevelt delivered his famous Infamy Speech to a Joint Session of Congress , calling for a formal declaration of war on the Empire of Japan.
Congress obliged his request less than an hour later. The UK actually declared war on Japan nine hours before the U. The attack was an initial shock to all the Allies in the Pacific Theater.
Further losses compounded the alarming setback. Japan attacked the Philippines hours later because of the time difference, it was December 8 in the Philippines.
Only three days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the battleships Prince of Wales and Repulse were sunk off the coast of Malaya , causing British Prime Minister Winston Churchill later to recollect "In all the war I never received a more direct shock.
As I turned and twisted in bed the full horror of the news sank in upon me. Over this vast expanse of waters Japan was supreme and we everywhere were weak and naked".
Throughout the war, Pearl Harbor was frequently used in American propaganda. One further consequence of the attack on Pearl Harbor and its aftermath notably the Niihau incident was that Japanese American residents and citizens were relocated to nearby Japanese-American internment camps.
Within hours of the attack, hundreds of Japanese American leaders were rounded up and brought to high-security camps such as Sand Island at the mouth of Honolulu harbor and Kilauea Military Camp on the island of Hawaii.
The attack also had international consequences. The Canadian province of British Columbia , bordering the Pacific Ocean, had long had a large population of Japanese immigrants and their Japanese Canadian descendants.
Pre-war tensions were exacerbated by the Pearl Harbor attack, leading to a reaction from the Government of Canada.
On February 24, , Order-in-Council P. On 4 March, regulations under the Act were adopted to evacuate Japanese-Canadians. The Japanese planners had determined that some means was required for rescuing fliers whose aircraft were too badly damaged to return to the carriers.
The island of Niihau, only 30 minutes flying time from Pearl Harbor, was designated as the rescue point. The aircraft was further damaged on landing.
Nishikaichi enlisted the support of three Japanese-American residents in an attempt to recover the documents.
During the ensuing struggles, Nishikaichi was killed and a Hawaiian civilian was wounded; one collaborator committed suicide, and his wife and the third collaborator were sent to prison.
The ease with which the local ethnic Japanese residents had apparently gone to the assistance of Nishikaichi was a source of concern for many, and tended to support those who believed that local Japanese could not be trusted.
Admiral Hara Tadaichi summed up the Japanese result by saying, "We won a great tactical victory at Pearl Harbor and thereby lost the war.
While the attack accomplished its intended objective, it turned out to be largely unnecessary. Unbeknownst to Yamamoto, who conceived the original plan, the U.
As it was, the elimination of the battleships left the U. Navy with no choice but to rely on its aircraft carriers and submarines—the very weapons with which the U.
Navy halted and eventually reversed the Japanese advance. While six of the eight battleships were repaired and returned to service, their relatively low speed and high fuel consumption limited their deployment, and they served mainly in shore bombardment roles their only major action being the Battle of Surigao Strait in October A major flaw of Japanese strategic thinking was a belief that the ultimate Pacific battle would be fought by battleships, in keeping with the doctrine of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan.
As a result, Yamamoto and his successors hoarded battleships for a "decisive battle" that never happened. The survival of the repair shops and fuel depots allowed Pearl Harbor to maintain logistical support to the U.
Ever since the Japanese attack, there has been debate as to how and why the United States had been caught unaware, and how much and when American officials knew of Japanese plans and related topics.
Military officers including Gen. Billy Mitchell had pointed out the vulnerability of Pearl to air attack. At least two naval war games, one in and another in , proved that Pearl was vulnerable to such an attack.
However, this conspiracy theory is rejected by mainstream historians. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Surprise attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy on the U.
Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Order of battle of the Attack on Pearl Harbor.
Consequences of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Pearl Harbor advance-knowledge conspiracy theory. Attack on Pearl Harbor in popular culture.
There is, however, no doubt that they did know, as did the Japanese. Mitsuo Fuchida about his observations. Fuchida led the Japanese attack on December 7, Pearl Harbor deep averages 42 feet.
But the Japanese borrowed an idea from the British carrier-based torpedo raid on the Italian naval base of Taranto.
They fashioned auxiliary wooden tail fins to keep the torpedoes horizontal, so they would dive to only 35 feet, and they added a breakaway "nosecone" of soft wood to cushion the impact with the surface of the water.
Even after the war, however, he received recriminating correspondence from those who despised him for not sacrificing his own life.
The Combat Air Patrol over the carriers alternated 18 plane shifts every two hours, with 18 more ready for takeoff on the flight decks and an additional 18 ready on hangar decks.
P, killed in action , Harry W. Brown P , Kenneth M. Taylor P, 2 , and George S. Three of the P kills were not verified by the Japanese and may have been shot down by naval anti-aircraft fire.
This was confirmed by Beloite and Beloite after years of research and debate. Miller was an African-American cook aboard West Virginia who took over an unattended anti-aircraft gun on which he had no training.
He was the first African-American sailor to be awarded the Navy Cross.